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Count All
Count each number's amount and then count all starting back at 1.

Count On
Count one number's amount and then continue counting... without going back to 1.

Doubles Plus or Minus
Think about doubles that can make up your number(s) or are close.

Working with Fives
Decompose numbers to identify fives within numbers and add.

Making Tens
Identify tens within numbers and add.

Using Compensation
Compensate by shifting quantities from one addend to the other.

Using Known Facts
Think about the numbers and how they are related to facts that you know.

Use place value to decompose numbers - e.g., tens and ones. Add the numbers together by using place value.

Split the numbers into other addition facts and add using addition facts.

Jumps of 10
One number is kept whole and multiples of 10 are added.

Next Friendly Number
Shift quantities to reach a 'friendly' number and adjust the other addend or the sum accordingly.

Using Counters
Count out the number of chips for the first number and remove the second number of chips.

Counting Up
Start with the second number and count up to the first number, keeping track of the whole number spaces between the two numbers.

Counting Back
Start at 1 number and count backwards by the number being subtracted.

Making a 10
Addition facts for 10 can be used to find differences from 10.

Jumps of 10
Using a pattern of jumps of 10 may be used to reinforce close facts.

Using Doubles
Uses addition doubles for subtraction halves (half doubles).
May be used for facts close to the halves.

Related Addition Facts
Uses reasoning to draw from known addition facts and relates them to subtraction. Seeing relationships between operations is vital for fluency and flexibility!

Representing Each Item Counting by Ones
Count each group separately, then count the whole.

Repeated Addition
Skip Counting
Count by saying 4 + 4 = 8 and 8 + 4 = 12 or by saying, 4, 8, 12.

Counting By
Counting each group as one unit and realizing that each group must have the same number of objects. Groups may be regrouped into other equivalent groups before calculating.

Recognize that multiplying by 2 doubles a number.

Halving and Doubling
Split one factor in half and double another factor.

Using the Distributive Property
Partial Products
A number in a multiplication expression can be decomposed into 2 or more numbers using addition or subtraction.

Using the Distributive Property of Tens
Partial Products
A Number in a multiplication expression is decomposed into 2 or more numbers with one (or more) of the numbers being a multiple of 10.

Using the Commutative Property
Numbers can be multiplied in any order without effecting the product.

Associative Property
The numbers being multiplied can be regrouped without changing the product.

Representing Each Group and Counting All
Make a representation for a group and put a tally mark for each object in the group. Repeat this until the number of tallies is the total count. Then count the number of groups to answer 'How many groups?'

Repeated Addition
Skip Counting
Counting On
Make a representation for a group and record the number of objects in the group. Repeat, skip counting by the number of objects in each group until the total required is reached. The number of groups is the number of skip counts.

Using the Distributive Property of Multiplication
Use simpler multiplication facts to determine how many groups there are.

Using the Commutative Property of Multiplication
This strategy relies on knowledge of fair shares and equal groups. Count out all the items one by one into groups until all items are distributed.