Strategies+ ADDITION + Count AllCount each number's amount and then count all starting back at 1. Count OnCount one number's amount and then continue counting... without going back to 1. Doubles Plus or MinusThink about doubles that can make up your number(s) or are close. Working with FivesDecompose numbers to identify fives within numbers and add. Making TensIdentify tens within numbers and add. Using CompensationCompensate by shifting quantities from one addend to the other. Using Known FactsThink about the numbers and how they are related to facts that you know. DecomposingUse place value to decompose numbers - e.g., tens and ones. Add the numbers together by using place value. SplittingSplit the numbers into other addition facts and add using addition facts. Jumps of 10One number is kept whole and multiples of 10 are added. Next Friendly NumberShift quantities to reach a 'friendly' number and adjust the other addend or the sum accordingly. - SUBTRACTION - Using CountersCount out the number of chips for the first number and remove the second number of chips. Counting UpStart with the second number and count up to the first number, keeping track of the whole number spaces between the two numbers. Counting BackStart at 1 number and count backwards by the number being subtracted. Making a 10Addition facts for 10 can be used to find differences from 10. Jumps of 10Using a pattern of jumps of 10 may be used to reinforce close facts. Using DoublesUses addition doubles for subtraction halves (half doubles). May be used for facts close to the halves. Related Addition FactsUses reasoning to draw from known addition facts and relates them to subtraction. Seeing relationships between operations is vital for fluency and flexibility! | Strategiesx MULTIPLICATION xRepresenting Each Item Counting by OnesCount each group separately, then count the whole. Repeated AdditionSkip CountingCount by saying 4 + 4 = 8 and 8 + 4 = 12 or by saying, 4, 8, 12. UnitizingCounting ByCounting each group as one unit and realizing that each group must have the same number of objects. Groups may be regrouped into other equivalent groups before calculating. DoublingRecognize that multiplying by 2 doubles a number. Halving and DoublingSplit one factor in half and double another factor. Using the Distributive PropertyPartial ProductsA number in a multiplication expression can be decomposed into 2 or more numbers using addition or subtraction. Using the Distributive Property of TensPartial ProductsA Number in a multiplication expression is decomposed into 2 or more numbers with one (or more) of the numbers being a multiple of 10. ÷ DIVISION ÷Representing Each Group and Counting AllMake a representation for a group and put a tally mark for each object in the group. Repeat this until the number of tallies is the total count. Then count the number of groups to answer 'How many groups?' Repeated AdditionSkip CountingCounting OnMake a representation for a group and record the number of objects in the group. Repeat, skip counting by the number of objects in each group until the total required is reached. The number of groups is the number of skip counts. Using the Distributive Property of MultiplicationUse simpler multiplication facts to determine how many groups there are. |

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